Joint Employer

On January 28, 2019, CDW was joined by nearly 90 organizations in comments filed in response to the National Labor Relations Board’s (NLRB) September 2018 notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) containing proposed changes to the joint-employer standard under the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA). The joint-employer standard is used to determined when two or more entities are jointly responsible for the terms and conditions of employment over the same group of employees. These terms and conditions include, but are not limited to, having the ability to hire, fire, discipline, supervise, or direct employees. Joint-employers are responsible for bargaining with any union representing the joint employees and are mutually liable for any violations of the NLRA either entity commits with respect to those employees.

The NLRB’s proposal adopts the long-accepted, practical requirement that the Board will find a joint employment relationship under the NLRA where a business or other entity actually exercises control over the essential terms and conditions of another employer’s employees. In doing so, the Board would restore clarity on this important part of the law. In the August 2015 decision in Browning-Ferris Industries (BFI), the Board created confusion by expanding the standard without defining key terms or providing guidance as to how to implement the changes to the law. The BFI standard created massive uncertainty throughout the business community and drastically expanded the number of business relationships that could trigger joint-employer status, exposing almost every contractual relationship to unwarranted liability. The US Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit recently returned the BFI case to the Board, noting the BFI standard lacked clarity.

In today’s world, large and small businesses alike have contractual relationships with dozens, hundreds or even thousands of franchisees, vendors, and contractors. The joint-employer standard proposed in the NPRM, which was in place for over 30 years, provided clarity and protected businesses from unnecessary involvement in labor negotiations and disputes involving workplaces in which they do not have direct control. The standard allowed hundreds of thousands of small and local businesses to flourish, creating millions of jobs.

Previously, on December 14, 2017, the Trump-era NLRB reinstated the original joint-employer standard in Hy-Brand Industrial Contractors. However, the Board subsequently vacated the Hy-Brand decision in response to a controversial opinion by the agency’s inspector general and ethics officer. As a result, BFI’s expansive and confusing standard is once again in effect.

Additionally, the General Counsel of the NLRB, Peter Robb, issued Memorandum GC 18-02 on December 1, 2017, instructing all Regional Offices to submit for review all cases involving “significant legal issues” to the NLRB’s Division of Advice, including cases that deal with the joint-employer standard and the application of the BFI decision. This presented the Board with an opportunity to reverse BFI through new adjudication and reinstate the traditional standard.

In its most significant move yet, the NLRB is now trying to undo this misguided policy change through its new NPRM. The proposed rule would reinstate the traditional standard and require direct and immediate control over essential terms and conditions of employment to trigger joint-employer status.

On June 13, CDW filed a petition for rulemaking with the Board to remedy the confusion caused by the BFI standard in hopes that the Board would clarify the operating landscape and protect countless businesses. Furthermore, CDW has filed letters of support for legislation codifying the original standard into law, letters to appropriators calling for policy riders prohibiting the Board and other agencies from using funds to implement the new standard, letters for the record for various hearings on the Obama-era standard, and amicus briefs in various cases involving application of the new standard (all of which can be found on our Resources page). CDW most recently filed comments on the Board’s NPRM.

Congress, President Trump, and the NLRB should continue to pursue all available avenues to reinstate the traditional joint-employer standard, including decisions, rulemaking and legislation, in order to provide an understandable, predictable and workable standard that allows local businesses and entrepreneurs to create jobs. This will strengthen the American economy and provide avenues for the American Dream.


Comments to the NLRB on its Joint Employer Proposed Rule

Comments to DOL on its Joint Employer Proposed Rule

Joint Employer Fact Sheet

Please see our resources page for more information on this issue.